Resist Accept Direct (RAD) Decision Framework for Rapid Change

Adapting to continuous change is one of the great challenges for national park stewardship. This demands new approaches, perspectives, and solutions for protecting our natural and cultural heritage. National Park Service and partner organizations including Schoodic Institute developed the RAD framework (Resist-Accept-Direct) as a decision framework for the 21st-century manager and presents the spectrum of adaptation approaches for responding to rapid and uncertain change. 

 The RAD approach is intended to inform and structure management decisions, science needs and experimental design, and communications with stakeholders.

For More Information Contact:

Nicholas Fisichelli, PhD,


RAD Resources

Resist-Accept-Direct (RAD)—A Framework for the 21st-century Natural Resource Manager

NPS RAD website

USGS RAD website


RAD communications

Managing for climate change: Resist, Accept, or Direct?

Climate change and national parks: Beyond resistance

Climate change means difficult decisions in Acadia


RAD science examples

The Sustainable Summits Project

Cadillac Mountain Restoration

Tree Test Beds in Acadia National Park

Future Forests of Coastal Maine